220 HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP. The "Black Sheep" Dynasty, A.H. 78^874 (1378- ! 4.69).—Reference has already been made to the Turko- man tribe bearing a black sheep on its standards, which rose to power towards the end of the fourteenth century in the country to the south of Lake Van. Strengthened by an alliance with the Jalayr family, the Kara Kuyunlu,1 as they are termed, established themselves in Armenia and Azerbaijan and finally succeeded to the kingdom of the Jalayr. Kara Yusuf, the second chief of the tribe, was more than once driven into exile by Tamerlane, and was one of the causes of the campaign against Bayazid, who granted him protection. He ultimately recovered his possessions in A.H. 808 (1405), and three years later added to them those of the Jalayr dynasty, defeating Ahmad the Il-Khanid and putting him to death. Kara Yusuf, whose sister was Gauhar Shad, the wife of Shah Rukh, was succeeded by Iskandar. A later member of the dynasty, Jahan Shah, was a successful soldier, who conquered Georgia to the north and Fars and Kerman to the south. He was preparing to invade Khorasan when a rebellion of his two sons, who ruled in Tabriz and Baghdad respectively, forced him to forgo his designs, and shortly afterwards he was killed in a battle with the «White Sheep." The "Blue Mosque" of Tabriz was founded by this monarch. The "White Sheep" Dynasty., A.H. 780-908 (1378- 1502).—The Ak-Kuyunlu, or "White Sheep" dynasty, known also from a remote ancestor as Bayenderi, was founded in the same year as that of their rivals the "Black Sheep," by a grant from Tamerlane of lands in Armenia and Mesopotamia, in reward for services rendered to him. Their capital was Diarbekr, and their power was at first inferior to that of the rival tribe, with which a deadly feud existed. This originated in the action of Iskandar, who, when fleeing from Shah Rukh, had by chance seized Kara Osman, the grandfather of Uzun Hasan. He kept the chief in prison at Erzerum, where he died, and some time afterwards he exhumed the corpse, struck off the head, and despatched it in triumph 1 Lu in Turki signifies "possessor of."